By Th. Mulder-Krieger, R. Verpoorte (auth.)
To date, numerous percentages exist to alter the genetics of vegetation together with classical breeding and sleek molecular organic ways comparable to recombinant DNA recommendations and plant trans formation tools. the purpose of this book is to study the feasibilities, provided by way of the present applied sciences, to switch flower shades. because of the nice value of anthocyanins as flower pigments, the most a part of this examine offers with this classification of flavonoids liable for so much red-, pink- and blue colors. Being electron poor, the flavylium nucleus of the anthocyanins is extremely reactive and undergoes - based upon pH - without difficulty structural variations that are coupled with color adjustments. a couple of mechanisms that stabilizes the colored - at rate of the colourless buildings in vegetation are defined, together with acylation, co pigmentation and steel advanced formation. simply because no plant species possesses the genetic skill for generating forms within the complete spectrum of colors, guy has hunted for the right way to switch the genetic houses of vegetation. in recent times, traditional flower breeding is a growing number of being supplemented through genetic engineering recommendations. This know-how bargains the chance to insert particular genes into the mobile genome and to move genes such a lot successfully among diversified organisms. the typical flower pigments, the anthocyanins, were studied for a few years and characterize now the simplest understood crew of secondary plant metabolites with recognize to (bio)chemistry and genetics.
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Additional resources for Anthocyanins as Flower Pigments: Feasibilities for flower colour modification
1. (continued) Acylated anthocyanin (trivial name) Source Colour of petals Reference Pg l 3-malyl-Glu5 Dianthus caryophyllus pink, purplish-red Terahara et ai. (1986), Yamaguchi et ai. (1988) Pg I 3-Mal-Glu & Cy 3-Mal-Glu I5 Gerbera 18 cvs. (1985) blue Ishikura and Shimizu (1975) Asen et ai. (1977), Ishikura and Yamamoto, 1980) Goto et ai. (1981) Legend I Anthocyanidins found in hydrolyzed extracts: Cy = cyanidin; Dp = delphinidin; Pg = pelargonidin; Pn = peonidin. Acyl groups: Caf = caffeoyl; Cou = coumaroyl; Mal = malonyl; Suc = succinyl.
In some cases, structural modifications introduced at the phenylpropanoid intermediate may determine the substitution pattern of the flavonoid end products (Wong, 1976; Ebel and Hahlbrock, 1982). 3 Enzymology of the General Phenylpropanoid Metabolism III. 1 Introduction The enzymes related to the general phenylpropanoid metabolism are phenylalanine· ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) and their interdependent regulation has been described. , 1976; Wong, 1976; Hahlbrock, 1981; Ebel and Hahlbrock, 1982; Heller, 1986; Heller and Forkmann, 1988; Forkmann, 1991).
1 General Introduction Flowering plants contain a multitude of secondary compounds, including flavonoids. The formation of these compounds requires many steps and should not be expected to be present in the more primitive organisms. Smith (1972) estimated that the formation of flavonoids accounts for the consumption of one-sixth of the total carbon fixed by photosynthesis in plants. The biosynthesis of the flavonoids has been thoroughly studied. Insight into flavonoid synthesis has come from feeding experiments with radioactive tracers in vivo, biochemical characterization of genetically defined mutants and enzymological studies in vitro.
Anthocyanins as Flower Pigments: Feasibilities for flower colour modification by Th. Mulder-Krieger, R. Verpoorte (auth.)