By ACI Committee 223
Shrinkage-compensating concrete is utilized in development to reduce drying-shrinkage cracking. Its features are just like these of portland-cement concrete. The fabrics, proportions, placement, and curing should still make sure that growth compensates for next drying-shrinkage.
This consultant units forth standards and practices to make sure the improvement of expansive pressure in concrete. as well as a dialogue of uncomplicated rules, tools and information are given protecting structural layout, concrete blend proportioning, placement, completing, and curing.
The fabrics, tactics, qc measures, and inspections defined during this record can be verified, monitored, or played as acceptable in simple terms through contributors keeping the precise ACI Certifications or similar.
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Extra resources for ACI 223R-10: Guide for the Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete
26 YOSH MARUYAMA apy with radium were carefully evaluated by Paterson and Russell (1962, 1963). , 1976). Megavoltage external-beam therapy has been applied successfully us ing many systems (Maruyama and van Nagell, 1982). Extensive studies of combined megavoltage and intracavitary therapy have been reported by Fletcher (1971), Marcial (1977), and others. Maruyama et al. (1976) described methods to optimize therapy for computerized treatment plan ning. Radium and LDR dosage were initially determined by the amount of 226Ra (milligrams) left in the tumor or placed in an organ for periods of time (milligram-hours or mg-hr).
1961). Berry and Oliver (1964) and Szechter and Schwarz (1977) reported SLDR between fractionated doses but with greatly reduced kinetics of recovery, by incubation of the cells at reduced temperatures. 9 "Plating efficiency. *Mean lethal dose (£>0). ) effects with higher survival. Fractionated doses of 361 cGy given at 24hr intervals resulted in a 23-fold increase in survival over a single-fraction dose of 1100 cGy (Duncan and Nias, 1977); however, cell proliferation and repopulation may have contributed to the survival increase.
It was noted in early trials that HDR can lead to increased normal-tissue complications, but methods have now improved sufficiently that HDR therapy is routine for uterine cancer in some centers (Taina, 1981). The radiobiology and dose-time effects of HDR were theoretically an alyzed by Li versage (1966), and clinical results reviewed by Taina (1981). Taina compared standard radium therapy with HDR brachytherapy and found identical tumor control for stage IA-II cervical tumors. 1%) for HDR. 6%.
ACI 223R-10: Guide for the Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete by ACI Committee 223