By Edwin S. Hunt, James Murray
A historical past of industrial in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550, demolishes the commonly held view that the word "medieval business" is an oxymoron. The authors evaluate the whole diversity of commercial in medieval western Europe, probing its Roman and Christian background to find the industrial and political forces that formed the association of agriculture, production, development, mining, transportation, and advertising. Then they care for the responses of businessmen to the devastating plagues, famines, and battle that beset Europe within the overdue heart a while. Medieval businessmen's striking luck in dealing with this adverse new atmosphere ready the way in which for the commercial enlargement of the 16th century.
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Extra resources for A History of Business in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550 (Cambridge Medieval Textbooks)
Mainly they were designed to ensure competence, but often uniform standards stifled competition and, where overly rigid, even curbed advances in technology. On the positive side, the standards for nonfood items applied only to finished product, not to process. Thus manufacturers remained free to work toward reducing costs through improved methods. Thus “rays of Ypres,” for example, would be known to a buyer as cloth of a specific length with specific characteristics and quality. Standards were especially useful in the case of internationally traded products such as textiles, whose market values were affected by the city of production.
These supplies Economics, culture, and geography were augmented shortly afterward by further discoveries in the southern Black Forest. The increased quantities of silver, promptly coined in the new mints, rapidly “irrigated” – in Peter Spufford’s elegant term – both countryside and city, greatly increasing the use of coin throughout western Europe. Tracing the origins of markets and coins used for trade is analogous to describing the set and props of a play but leaving out the actors. Just who the actors were in the revival of markets in western Europe and where they came from is a subject of some debate among historians.
The term was for several years, the exact length of time depending upon location, training needed to acquire the necessary skill, economic conditions, and relationship to the owner. During that time, the master assumed a parental role, with responsibility for the apprentice’s morals as well as his education. At the end of the period, the apprentice might be given a small sum or, in certain crafts such as turners and masons, a set of tools. He might then become a master in his own business or go out to work for a wage.
A History of Business in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550 (Cambridge Medieval Textbooks) by Edwin S. Hunt, James Murray